3D Diaries Part 2 Cameras and rigs


Bob Pank#
The idea of S-3D is not hard to grasp: one image for each eyeball. But making it work well enough to maintain the 3D illusion for the viewer is far from simple or straightforward. The fun starts with acquisition that breaks into two types of operation; live (no post production) and not live (with post).
Shooting 3D requires acquiring two streams of video which usually involves two sets of cameras and lenses as well as some sort of support structure to keep them both pointing in the right direction and working in harmony. Although the technical performance of modern cameras and lenses is generally excellent, getting two channels to be exactly the same is still not straightforward. Nor is correctly ‘pointing’ them either.
Sports is recognised as the biggest draw for television audiences and so it’s no surprise that sports channels have been first out of the blocks for 3DTV – HD of course. What they want is live coverage and this has really dropped 3D engineers straight into the deep end of the 3D shooting pool, as getting it right for live broadcasting is much more demanding than shooting for a recorded output.
Among the requirements are zoom lenses. Back in the 3D-film days they took the easy way out – avoiding zoom lenses by only using primes, but it still took a huge amount of time – months – to ‘process’ so that it would be OK for the audience. Even so the end result was often only accurate enough to watch in short sessions before the dreaded headache broke out. Also this method of shooting lacked flexibility as any required change of focal length meant that shooting had to stop for half an hour to set up a new pair of lenses. No good for live sports!
The use of zooms presents major challenges for a number of reasons. They must be kept in step so their focal length is always matched – all through the zoom range. Also, as the operation of zooming requires that the lens glass rotates, any slight aberration of one lens will show up when compared to the output of the other lens. Zoom lenses can slightly displace areas of the image as the glass goes around. This is not noticeable in a 2D shoot but it can look strange in 3D.
Another requirement for sports is long zooms. If you simply extend the focal length, as normal, then the far away subjects take on a rather ‘cardboard cut-out’ look. They appear flat with no detail in the third dimension. Humans have a fixed distance between their eyes (interocular distance, usually assumed to be 63.5 mm) and cannot see 3D detail beyond about 15m away. We can sometimes get around this by moving our heads. Unlike humans, 3D camera rigs have the flexibility on camera rigs to resolve the problem by increasing the distance between the cameras – so increasing the ‘interaxial’ distance (between the axes of the two lenses) in step with the focal length. At the same time the convergence of the cameras, the angle that they point towards each other, may need adjusting so that the two axes continue to converge on the same point. This point will appear to the viewers to be at their screen’s plane, not in front or behind.
To make this all happen together so the cameraman can get on with his shot without having to continuously make many perfectly coordinated adjustments, the rig is usually supported with a box between the two cameras. It works out what’s happening and keeps everything working smoothly. Sony has such a ‘3D Processor Box’, as does 3ality Digital and others. Simply put, the box makes shooting live 3DTV possible.
There are two main types of rig. The ‘split beam’ type uses mirrors to direct the light to the two cameras. You can easily spot these as one camera is mounted vertically, usually low down on the rig. This disposition of cameras allows the interaxial separation to be reduced to very small distances, making these the rigs of choice for close-ups and in-studio work; and there are lightweight rigs suitable for portable use with Steadicam. Drawbacks are that the mirrors reduce the light to the cameras by one stop, partially polarise the light and can cause slight ghosting. For longer-range shots any curving of the mirrors will cause additional distortions. For all longer shots the side-by-side style of camera rig is generally used. There are no mirrors and full freedom to use the wide interaxial separation preferred for long distance 3D shots. There are many 3D rig suppliers on the market including 3ality Digital, P+S Technik, SwissRIG and many more.
Shooting 3D for non-live productions does not have to use automated rigs and processor boxes as many 3D adjustments of the material can be made in post. So before shooting it would be wise to tell your proposed post facility what you require, based on what you will be shooting. That way they will know what’s needed in the way of corrections. The rig should be set up accordingly and so avoid any surprises when post work starts. As ever, getting near to the required result ‘in camera’ is the best policy. It may well be that sorting out convergence can be left to post, in which case the cameras can be set converging on infinity – i.e. fixed parallel – with a sensible interaxial setting that takes some account of the focal length used.
There are ‘off-the-shelf’ 3D camera packages available. Polecam offers two side-by-side set-ups as 3D-Narrow and 3D-Wide. Panasonic offers its all-in-one Full HD 3D P2 camcorder available later this year. There are rumours of a Sony EX3 3D package coming soon. These cameras should make shooting 3D easier and cheaper but may be limited in flexibility such as interocular distance.
Most of what we have now for shooting is designed for the most active areas of 3D, which is the top-end professional market for movies and big TV sports events. However the ‘camcorder’ section of the market is coming to life so was can expect a much broader range of products shortly.

Tags: s-3d | 3d diaries | 3d | shooting 3d | rigs | focal length | 3d zoom | iss042 | Bob Pank#
Contributing Author Bob Pank#

Article Copyright tv-bay limited. All trademarks recognised.
Reproduction of the content strictly prohibited without written consent.

Related Interviews
  • 3D Storm, Newtek partners for 20yrs, shares the latest from the VIZRT acquisition at IBC2019

    3D Storm, Newtek partners for 20yrs, shares the latest from the VIZRT acquisition at IBC2019

  • 3D Storm show the new NDI to HDMI decoder at NAB 2019

    3D Storm show the new NDI to HDMI decoder at NAB 2019

  • 3D Storm presents LiveXpert and NewTek products at IBC 2018

    3D Storm presents LiveXpert and NewTek products at IBC 2018

  • 3D Storm discuss IP and NDI for Live Media Server and Live CG Broadcast at NAB 2018

    3D Storm discuss IP and NDI for Live Media Server and Live CG Broadcast at NAB 2018

  • LiveCG Broadcast and LiveMedia Server from 3D Storm at BVE 2018

    LiveCG Broadcast and LiveMedia Server from 3D Storm at BVE 2018

  • NDI and Newtek Products from 3D Storm at IBC 2017

    NDI and Newtek Products from 3D Storm at IBC 2017

  • LiveMedia Server and Live Xpert from 3D Storm at NAB 2017

    LiveMedia Server and Live Xpert from 3D Storm at NAB 2017

  • 3D Storm with LiveXpert at BVE 2017

    3D Storm with LiveXpert at BVE 2017

  • 3D Storm at IBC 2016

    3D Storm at IBC 2016

  • 3D Storm at BVE 2016

    3D Storm at BVE 2016

  • 3D Storm at IBC 2015

    3D Storm at IBC 2015

  • Brainstorm Multimedia: Aston3D at NAB 2013

    Brainstorm Multimedia: Aston3D at NAB 2013

  • Brainstorm Multimedia at IBC 2015

    Brainstorm Multimedia at IBC 2015

  • BRAINSTORM VIRTUAL SETS at NAB 2015

    BRAINSTORM VIRTUAL SETS at NAB 2015

  • Brainstorm Multimedia at BVE 2015

    Brainstorm Multimedia at BVE 2015

  • Brainstorm on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Brainstorm on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Brainstorm with Aston demonstration at IBC 2013

    Brainstorm with Aston demonstration at IBC 2013

  • Brainstorm at IBC 2013

    Brainstorm at IBC 2013

  • Featured Clip: Geoff Boyle comments on NAB 2012

    Featured Clip: Geoff Boyle comments on NAB 2012

  • Brainstorm at NAB 2012

    Brainstorm at NAB 2012

  • VIZRT at BVE 2012

    VIZRT at BVE 2012

  • Newtek at BVE 2012

    Newtek at BVE 2012

  • Sony at ProVideo2011

    Sony at ProVideo2011

  • Sisvel Technology at IBC2011

    Sisvel Technology at IBC2011

  • Sensio at IBC2011

    Sensio at IBC2011

  • Panasonic at IBC2011

    Panasonic at IBC2011

  • Doremi at IBC2011

    Doremi at IBC2011

  • Matrox at IBC2011

    Matrox at IBC2011

  • Blackmagic at IBC2011

    Blackmagic at IBC2011

  • SGO at IBC2011

    SGO at IBC2011

  • Marshall Electronics at IBC2011

    Marshall Electronics at IBC2011

  • Polecam Antelope Pico at IBC 2014

    Polecam Antelope Pico at IBC 2014

  • Camdec at BVE 2014

    Camdec at BVE 2014

  • Cambo at BVE 2013

    Cambo at BVE 2013


Related Shows
  • Show 20 - July 17th 2013

    Show 20 - July 17th 2013


Articles
The LED Lighting Revolution
Neil Vann Back in April 2019, the National Association of Broadcasters hosted the annual NAB show in Las Vegas where over 90,000 people from more than 160 countries came to see the latest broadcast technology from around the world. Honouring the highlights of the show were NAB’s 2019 Product of the Year awards, where the newly launched Chroma-Q Space Force onebytwo – a bright, tuneable white LED softlight with a high CRI, TLCI and TM-30 - picked up one of these prestigious awards in the lighting category.
Tags: iss139 | ac-ent | led | lighting | chroma-q space | softlight | studio force phosphor | Neil Vann
Contributing Author Neil Vann Click to read or download PDF
Covering Ironman Australia
KitPlus KitPlus recently chatted with Stephen Kane, production manager of IRONMAN Oceania in Australia and New Zealand. IRONMAN is one of the leading mass sports brands in the world, consisting of over 260 events across 44 countries including long (IRONMAN and IRONMAN 70.3) and short (Sprint and Olympic) distance triathlons, mountain bike stage racing, road cycling and running, both marathon and trail. One of those events is IRONMAN Australia, which takes place yearly on the Australian east coast.
Tags: iss139 | ironman | dejero | streaming | cellsat | 5g | engo | mobile transmitter | facebook live | wi-fi | cellular | satellite | KitPlus
Contributing Author KitPlus Click to read or download PDF
To Remotely Go - TVFutures
Michael Parsons One of my biggest concerns as an academic responsible for the education of hundreds of students is the ‘appropriateness’ of much of the technology we purchase and implement within the curriculum. The last few years have seen tremendous change in all sorts of technologies, and the broadcast industry is just one sector that has seen some significant leaps in innovation.
Tags: iss139 | university | portsmouth | graduation | guildhall | newtek | streaming | pxw-fs7 | ndi | ip | ndihx ptz camera | Michael Parsons
Contributing Author Michael Parsons Click to read or download PDF
Undercover Remote Production
David Bradley

It’s only taken 20 years and it seems that Remote Production is finally coming of age, but it now requires far more cameras than anyone envisaged back in the last century!

The move to remote production is one of the unstoppable trends of 2019 and moving into 2020. Our CamBall cameras pioneered remote working as early as 2003 with sport and wildlife programming using remote production for many years with incredible results.

Tags: iss139 | ptz | br remote | 5g | remote camera | atlantic productions | camball | camball4 | David Bradley
Contributing Author David Bradley Click to read or download PDF
Making Metadata Work
Bruce Devlin - new I dare say that if you’re a keen reader of my column then you will be brushing up on your Dutch pronunciation and acclimatising yourself to mayonnaise on your chips rather than ketchup. If you’re really keen then you’ll also be making sure that you practise your Dutch jokes about the Flemish to ensure you don’t accidentally tell a Flemish joke about the Dutch at 2am on Sunday morning in a local bar somewhere near the red light district in Amsterdam.
Tags: iss139 | metadata | class | mrmxf | ibc | mesa | Bruce Devlin - new
Contributing Author Bruce Devlin - new Click to read or download PDF