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AUDIO MEASUREMENT & VISUALIZ ATION OF LOUDNESS [ FOR E XPERT & STANDARD USERS ] Michael Kahsnitz Head of Product Development, RTW. Today’s audio engineers and editors have to fight various battles, including constantly shrinking production budgets, less time to create the final program content and more tech specs to match than ever. For this compilation, we take a deeper look at the required major indicators common to all the standards. Let’s start with a common understanding for some terms: Fig.1-1 Program: An individual, self-contained audio-visual or audio-only item to be presented in Radio, Television or other electronic media. An advertisement (commercial), trailer, promotional item (‘promo’), interstitial or similar item shall be considered to be a program in this context. Program Loudness (I): The integrated loudness over the duration of a program. Program loudness is measured absolute in LUFS or LKFS and relative in LU. Fig.1-2 Fig.2-1 Short term loudness (S): 3-second integration indication of the actual loudness value. Short-form content: Short duration program (up to approximately 2 minutes), typically shorter than 30 seconds; In addition to commercials and promotional items also interstitials, stingers, bumpers and similar very short items belong to this category. 60 | KITPLUS - THE TV-BAY MAGAZINE: ISSUE 113 MAY 2016 Max Short term loudness (Smax): The measure ‘Maximum Short-term Loudness’ should be used to further characterize and control the audio signal as well as to avoid overly dynamic short- form program, which would lead to audience complaints. Momentary loudness (M): Fast (400 msec integration) indication of the actual loudness value. Loudness Range (LRA): Distribution range of the loudness of a program. Maximum True Peak Level: The maximum value of the audio signal waveform of a program in the continuous time domain measured in dBTP. Who needs what? Most of the time TV professionals tend to have an easy and fast-to-read indication that gives a good assumption of the loudness for their program. This can be a big numerical, color changing display of the Short term “S” reading like in Fig.