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It is therefore in the content owners best interest to submit audio that’s compliant and suitable for the target platform from the outset. This requires the ability to measure for and adjust dynamic range based on loudness range (LRA) parameters as well as the peak-to-loudness ratio. In terms of loudness target,. rule of thumb for podcasts is -16 LUFS, compared to the -23 or -24 LUFS specifi ed in the ITU-R BS.1770 loudness recommendations for television. Another important consideration is true peak. For television, ITU-R BS.1770 allows for. maximum peak program level of -1dBTP, but most streaming compression schemes require. lower level of around -3dBTP Max to avoid downstream distortion after the employment of the chosen codec. Dynamically Adapting Audio Dynamic adaptation algorithms introduce. new promising technique that accounts for the complex loudness normalisation requirements of podcasts. In short, dynamic adaptation algorithms address the challenges of re- purposing fi lm for TV or TV/radio for streaming while respecting dialog levels and maintaining transitions in the full context of loudness compliance. NUGEN Audio has applied the concept in DynApt,. proprietary algorithm that automatically analyzes the audio and then carefully reduces the loudness range according to several measures, while preserving the short-term dynamics and “space” in the audio and ensuring intelligibility for the dialog levels. The end result is audio that can be re-purposed for streaming without damaging the content’s original sound and feel, maintaining intentional dramatic transitions and preserving dialog clarity. Dynamic adaptation checks and controls both voice level and program loudness in. way that restricts maximum variance. making the outcome more robust and suitable for automatic application in comparison with traditional multi-band compression techniques. Providing. new option for adapting content in. fast and effi cient manner, the algorithm automatically adapts dynamic audio appropriately for different listening environments and playout systems. By enabling audio re-purposing and complex loudness- compliant dynamic adaptation (including LRA targeting) within the NLE or as an offl ine process, dynamic adaptation supports the creative process with minimal workfl ow disruption, and without the need to employ heavy-handed blind processing at broadcast or the need to re-mix the work several times for each target platform. To summarize, dynamic adaptation techniques can overcome the key challenges of adapting audio content for re-purposing: namely, how to provide optimal quality of experience in terms of dynamic audio contrasts within the context of loudness compliance and. last but not least. how to achieve these objectives in. highly automated, effi cient, and cost-effective workfl ow. With dynamic adaptation, content owners can preserve the original creative intent of the audio while also ensuring that audio is suitably re- purposed for different listening and playout contexts And importantly,. dynamic adaptation workfl ow can fi t seamlessly next to the usual EBU R128/CALM-based normalisation. KITPLUS - THE TV-BAY MAGAZINE: ISSUE 99 MARCH 2015 | 61